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The origin and development of the free trade port

日期:2018-02-23 浏览:
The free trade port refers to the port of duty-free import and export for all or most foreign goods, and is designated outside the customs of a country. The opening up of free trade ports by the state can increase transshipment trade, obtain all kinds of trade costs, expand foreign exchange income and promote economic development. When did the free trade port rise? Sunflower to answer for you.
The concept of free trade port was first produced in Europe. In 1547, Italy will be officially in the Gulf of Genoa, the port named Li Nan the world's first free trade port, engaged in single entrepot trade. With the rapid development of shipping industry and the rapid recovery of world economy after the Second World War, the number of free-trade ports is increasing and its functions are expanding. With the development of world economic integration, the number of free-trade ports has been spread all over the world. At present, there are more than 100 free trade ports in the world and more than 2000 special economic and free zones with similar connotations and functions with the free trade ports.
With the change of the times, free trade port has developed further from the early single transshipment trade type to the following types of "industry and commerce", "tourism, shopping" and "comprehensive".
The first is the "transshipment trade" free trade port. This kind of free trade port is mainly distributed in Western Europe, typical of Hamburg Port in Germany and Liverpool port in England, and it belongs to the first generation free trade port.  Through this "entrepot trade" free trade port, the goods trade directly between producers and consumers, but through free trade port of goods shipped to third countries, from third countries traded hands. This kind of free trade port provides an effective way to avoid trade sanctions for antidumping countries. However, with the development of economic integration, the formation of regional economies makes the tariff barriers between countries or regions being eliminated, resulting in the impact of the "transshipment trade" free trade port's function and position. Under such an international environment, such a free trade port has been upgraded to second or third generation free trade port in order to survive, and the other part has chosen to cancel its own free trade port location in the wave of integration.
The second is the "business type" free trade port. These free-trade ports are mainly distributed in Latin America, Africa and Eastern Europe. They are represented by the Manaus port of Brazil and the Sulina port of Romania. They belong to the second generation free trade port. Because after the Second World War, manufacturing and manufacturing industry has higher requirements for sites and transportation network, making the second generation free trade port break through the space constraints, and the location is wider. The location is extended from the port terminal to the hinterland of the port, which is expanded from the function of the original "transit trade" to the direction of promoting the trade development and promoting the industrial development and establishing a free trade port of "industry and commerce type". This free trade port has greatly promoted the economic development around the region, increased the foreign exchange income and effectively improved the local employment situation.
Then the "tourist, shopping" free trade port. This kind of free trade port is mainly distributed in the Caribbean, with Venezuela magritta port and Columbia port as the representative of the San andreas. This kind of free trade port area because the economy is not developed, and the industrial structure in the third shopping and tourism industries, the free trade port in the development process, in order to return the money, make up for the shortage of domestic commodities and other defects, supplement to tourism, shopping as the main function, the establishment of "tourism and shopping" free trade port, in order to achieve the purpose of promoting the development of regional economy.
Magritta port and port San Andres "tourism and shopping" free trade port, thanks to the local natural scenery, vigorously develop tourism related industries. San Andres has a pleasant climate, natural beach and scenery for tourists, places of historic interest and scenic beauty, recuperation and vacation, play, plus cheap supply of goods, which is becoming a highly attractive shopping center". Magritta port in the development of "tourism and shopping" free trade port more thoroughly, it is not engaged in the export processing industry, nor the entrepot trade, mainly through the sale of cheap goods selling business and tourism, every year to attract tourists Ma Greta up to about 3000000 people. The "tourism and shopping" free trade port provides an effective means of economic promotion for the lack of areas made by the handicraft industry.